Your modern, Western world was all propelled forwards by Welsh coal, almost all of which came through Cardiff. [REF], It is expected that the National Assembly will change its name to Senedd Cymru before 2021. He was illegally executed in the town in 1318 on the order of Hugh Despenser the Younger. Cardiff's new status as the premier town in South Wales was confirmed when it was chosen as the site of the University College South Wales and Monmouthshire in 1893.. Cardiff became the biggest coal-exporting port in the world, and at its peak in 1913, more than 13 million tons of coal left here. Scratch the surface of the city, and you’ll uncover: There are SO many more interesting facts about the city, but we want to focus on the Industrial Revolution for a second.  Cardiff had a population of between 1,500 and 2,000 in the Middle Ages, a relatively normal size for a Welsh town in this period. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Roman officials holed up in Cardiff castle, The Emporium nightclub: a Cardiff institution, Support Cardiff's independent businesses - open for deliveries and takeaway during COVID-19 coronavirus lockdown, Being poor at Christmas: you can help people in Cardiff, The history of Tyndall Street - and the lost community of Newtown, "Little Ireland", Cardiff, that most of the pavements you walk on in the city centre are actually made from.
 It is the last major battle to occur in Wales, with a total death toll of about 200 (mostly Royalist) soldiers killed. The city was county town of Glamorgan until the council reorganisation in 1974 paired Cardiff and the now Vale of Glamorgan together as the new county of South Glamorgan. The real history begins in 43 AD/CE, when the Emperor Claudius ordered his Roman army to invade Britain. A report for the Welsh Assembly Government, December 2004. British tribes from beyond this new frontier of the Roman Empire resisted the Roman advance and the Silures, along with Caratacus (Welsh: Caradoc), attacked the Romans in 47 and 48. The East Moors Steelworks closed in 1978 and Cardiff lost population during the 1980s, consistent with a wider pattern of counter urbanisation in Britain. The Industrial Revolution and Marquises of Bute
Further local government restructuring in 1996 resulted in Cardiff city's district council becoming a unitary authority, the City and County of Cardiff, with the addition of Creigiau and Pentyrch.
, In 1536, the Act of Union between England and Wales led to the creation of the shire of Glamorgan. From 1901 coal exports from Barry surpassed those from Cardiff, but the administration of the coal trade remained centred on Cardiff, in particular its Coal Exchange, where the price of coal on the British market was determined and the first million-pound deal was struck in 1907. , Cardiff had become a Free Borough in 1542. Pretty cool, right? Cardiff as Capital of Wales: Formal Recognition by Government. The area that would become known as Wales had become free of glaciers by about 10,250 BP. Esys Consulting Ltd, Evaluation of Regeneration in Cardiff Bay. It is speculated that perhaps for long periods, raiders attacked the area, making Cardiff untenable, The first written mention of Cardiff is made in the Annales Cambriae (The Welsh Annals) in 445. Cardiff’s City Hall stands in what has been acclaimed as one of the finest civic centres in Europe. Updates:  They cleared the forests to establish pasture and to cultivate the land, developed new technologies such as ceramics and textile production, and they brought a tradition of long barrow construction that began in continental Europe during the 7th millennium BC. The amount of work and investment in the City allowed it grow faster than other Welsh towns and cities, which brought more and more people to Cardiff. Soon afterwards, a large wooden fort was built at Cardiff, and it is possible that this is where the City gets its name from - "Fort of Didius" (Caer Didius). We’ll update this page as we come across new links of interest. Cardiff has many assets to reflect its status as capital. 21 December 1955. At this time the international price of coal was struck in the Coal Exchange building (where the world’s first £1 million pound deal was signed). The population reached 250,000 in the first half of the 20th century, after being granted city status in 1905. , The Silures were not finally conquered until c. AD 75, when Sextus Julius Frontinus' long campaign against them began to succeed, and they gained control of the whole of Wales. In 1900 they joined the Cardiff & District League for their first competitive season.
The Sci-Fi programs Torchwood and Doctor Who were filmed in the City, as well as the Welsh drama 'Caerdydd". Cardiff City’s all-time leading goal-scorer is Len Davies.
 During the same period Ralph "Prepositus de Kardi" ("Provost of Cardiff") took up office as the first Mayor of Cardiff. This isn’t, of course, all that makes Cardiff remarkable. I take it you’ve heard of the Industrial Revolution? Cardiff: University of Wales Press 2008. A Capital City of England. This cast of characters helped to build the docks and worked on the ships.
The Encyclopedia of Wales notes that the decision to recognise the city as the capital of Wales "had more to do with the fact that it contained marginal Conservative constituencies than any reasoned view of what functions a Welsh capital should have". The city was proclaimed capital city of Wales on 20 December 1955, by a written reply by the Home Secretary Gwilym Lloyd George. This required docks to deal with all the exports, and thus, the Bute West Dock, the Oval Basin, Bute East Dock Roath Basin, Roath Dock and Queen Alexandra Dock. Barry docks had the advantage of being accessible in all tides, and David Davies claimed that his venture would cause "grass to grow in the streets of Cardiff". The forward netted a total of 181 League and Cup strikes in his time with the Bluebirds between 1920 and 1931. He would spend his life building the Cardiff docks and would later be called "the creator of modern Cardiff". By 1936, their trade was less than half its value in 1913, reflecting the slump in demand for Welsh coal. In 1091 Robert FitzHamon began work on Cardiff Castle and a small settlement grew up around it.  In 1815, a boat service between Cardiff and Bristol was established, running twice weekly. Try again later. He built the first stone keep in Cardiff Castle, and he used it to imprison Robert II, Duke of Normandy from 1126 until his death in 1134, by order of King Henry I, who was the Duke's younger brother. Cardiff became the main port for exports of coal from the Cynon, Rhondda, and Rhymney valleys, and grew at a rate of nearly 80% per decade between 1840 and 1870.  The town gained a second Royal charter in 1608. Page Created: July 2005 CLICK HERE SIGN UP TO OUR WEEKLY NEWSLETTER. The Roman Empire didn't relinquish its hold over Britain until their departure in 407. The docks were responsible for the city's massive growth during the early part of the 20th century, and at one time Cardiff became the biggest exporter of coal in the world. At that time sea levels were much lower than today, and the shallower parts of what is now the North Sea were dry land.  John Davies has theorised that the story of Cantre'r Gwaelod's drowning and tales in the Mabinogion, of the waters between Wales and Ireland being narrower and shallower, may be distant folk memories of this time.
The history of Cardiff—a City and County Borough and the capital of Wales—spans at least 6,000 years.
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