china income distribution data

To gauge the income distribution in China across regions, we next looked at real per capita household disposable income for 2015 by provinces. "[5], China is an emerging economy, with quarterly GDP growth rates averaging 9.31%[6] for the past two decades, powered mainly by strong exports. Disposable income is a person’s total income less taxes. [17] Research on inland-coastal inequality indicates that "since being a coastal province is a geographic advantage that will persist, this tendency for divergence will also probably continue," but institutional factors still have a significant effect. Website created in 2015-2017 with the collaboration of: (Benjamin Grillet, François Prosper, Brice Terdjman, Anthony Veyssière), (Panagiotis Korvesis, Antonis Skandalis, Konstantinos Skianis, Michalis Vazirgianis), IT Consultants: Thomas Blanchet, Guillaume Saint-Jacques, David Smadja, Assistants: Yu Tian, Regina Hung, Amory Gethin, Project Management:  Facundo Alvaredo and Lucas Chancel. Data have been revised for Belgium and Ireland (income year 2017). The St. Louis Fed On the Economy blog features relevant commentary, analysis, research and data from our economists and other St. Louis Fed experts. The key novelty of the WID.world project is to use such data in a systematic manner, allowing comparisons between countries and over long time periods. China's wealth gap the widest since economic reforms began. Retrieved from NBS online: Xiong Tong. [4] Research conducted by Jeffrey Sachs on the entire period from 1952 to 1996 indicates that in general, regional income inequalities are driven by government policy, whereas income convergence is "strongly associated with the extent of marketization and openness. To learn more about cookies, click here. However, China still faces a number of socioeconomic issues, including the increasing income disparity between different groups of citizens, largely characterized by rural-urban income inequality.

As the graph below shows, over the past 25 years this indicator reached a maximum value of 12.40 in 1990 and a minimum value of 9.20 in 2010.

In other words, the living standards in Beijing and Shanghai in terms of the purchasing power of yuan were not necessarily higher than the poor provinces, but were instead much lower.


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[8] In contrast, the income disparity was at its narrowest in 1983, at 1.82:1, due to effects of the Household-responsibility system introduced in 1978. The Bank On movement is designed to improve the financial stability of America’s unbanked and underbanked.


[18] “Currently rural incomes are less equally distributed than urban incomes but urban inequality is increasing faster than rural inequality” (Wu, 2005, p. As the graph below shows, over the past 25 years this indicator reached a maximum value of 12.40 in 1990 and a minimum value of 9.20 in 2010. The highest rate is 35%. For media-related questions, email mediainquiries@stls.frb.org. It is divided into 9 income groups. And there is also room to further increase spending on social services, especially in rural areas, reducing inequality even more. [15] China's Hukou system (户口) is an institutional factor that significantly inhibits interprovincial migration. We used a provincial-level consumer price index (CPI) to obtain real disposable income for different provinces across China. Estimates for national accounts (such as national income and national wealth) found on WID.world and on international statistical institutions databases are generally consistent, buy can vary for several reasons. Only few institutions provide inequality estimates and those who do so (e.g. Figure 5 – Income inequality in China, 1978-2015: corrected estimates. Retrieved from.

Select a category China faces significant corruption problems that make this tax system illegitimate and difficult to enforce. Output

Research published by the International Monetary Fund indicates that “continuing with the current growth pattern would further increase already high investment and saving needs to unsustainable levels, lower urban employment growth, and widen the rural-urban income gap.”[23] Instead, they recommend reducing subsidies to industry and investment, encouraging the development of the services industry, and reducing barriers to labor mobility, believing that this would result in a “more balanced growth with an investment-to-GDP ratio that is consistent with medium-term saving trends, faster growth in urban employment, and a substantial reduction in the income gap between rural and urban residents.”[23] With regard to labor mobility reform, research published in the journal of Economic Modelling suggests that reforms in the rural land rental market and Hukou system alongside efforts to increase off-farm labor mobility would dramatically reduce the urban-rural income ratio.

“The current institutions and policies are detrimental to China’s future growth because the sector-biased income transfers and expenditures on health, housing, and education not only distort economic incentives of the workers in the sectors, but will also affect the human-capital attainments of their children, which may further widen the rural-urban income gap.”[13] In other words, current income inequality created largely as a result of government policy favoring urban centers begets further rural-urban income inequality, which creates a vicious cycle and further reinforces regional and rural-urban inequalities. Some people and regions achieved prosperity, and urban-rural and interregional income gaps narrowed. Hence, measured by average living standards in the provinces, inequality in China is not as severe as people often think. Tax payers consider that the taxes they pay will go to a privileged minority, which is why, in practice, this tax system is not legitimate.

[9] Economist Kenneth Rogoff also cautioned on the problem of income inequality, commenting that “There is no doubt that income inequality is the single biggest threat to social stability around the world, whether it is in the United States, the European periphery, or China.”[21] Income inequality is argued to be a menace to social stability, and potentially causes a disappearance of middle class capital that would impede China’s economic growth.[22].

However, “while the contribution of rural-urban inequality is much higher than that of inland-coastal inequality in terms of levels, the trend is very different.

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