Deep-sea exploration is considered a relatively recent human activity compared to the other areas of geophysical research, as the depths of the sea have been investigated only during comparatively recent years. (See Ocean Drilling Program), Echo-sounding instruments have also been widely used to determine the depth of the sea bottom since World War II. Operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Alvin is designed to carry a crew of three people to depths of 4,000 m (13,123 ft).  Argo was employed in 1985 to locate the wreck of RMS Titanic; the smaller Jason was also used to explore the shipwreck. The American explorer William Beebe, also a naturalist from Columbia University in New York, working with fellow engineer Otis Barton of Harvard University, designed the first practical bathysphere to observe marine species at depths that could not be reached by a diver. Learn how and when to remove this template message, http://www.enotes.com/earth-science/deep-sea-exploration, "Jacques Piccard: Oceanographer and pioneer of deep-sea exploration - Obituaries, News", "James Cameron Completes Record-Breaking Mariana Trench Dive", "Filmmaker in Submarine Voyages to Bottom of Sea", "James Cameron has reached deepest spot on Earth", "Miles Under the Pacific, a Director Will Take On His Most Risky Project", "DEEPSEA CHALLENGE – National Geographic Explorer James Cameron's Expedition", Handbuch zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik, "Wall Street trader reaches bottom of Atlantic in bid to conquer five oceans", "Deep-sea exploration: Earth's final frontier: only a portion of the potential of the oceans has been tapped, but it is clear that exploring and improving our understanding of the ocean and its influence on global events are among our most important challenges today. A pulse of sound sent from the ship is reflected from the sea bottom back to the ship, the interval of time between transmission and reception being proportional to the depth of the water. The submarine is equipped with lights, cameras, computers, and highly maneuverable robotic arms for collecting samples in the darkness of the ocean's depths.
, Deep Sea Exploration." 7 Dec, 2009 <. This page was last edited on 16 September 2020, at 00:05. | Goliath Business News", "Underwater Exploration - History, Oceanography, Instrumentation, Diving Tools And Techniques, Deep-sea Submersible Vessels, Key Findings In Underwater Exploration - Deep-sea pioneers", "Bathysphere - Air, Sea, Exploration, Diving, Bell, and Scientists", "Human Occupied Vehicle Alvin : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution", "Deep sea exploration and marine science aboard Alvin et al - 11/04", "Deep Sea Exploration: Submarine Volcanoes and Hydrothermal Vents", Smithsonian Ocean Portal on Deep Ocean Exploration, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Deep-sea_exploration&oldid=978616916, Articles needing additional references from April 2009, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1872–1876: The first systematic deep sea exploration was conducted by the, 1890–1898: First Austrian-Hungarian deep sea expedition on board the ship, 1898–1899: First German deep sea expedition on board the ship. World of Earth Science.  On an experimental dive in the Cape Verde Islands, his bathyscaphe successfully withstood the pressure on it at 1,402 m (4,600 ft), but its body was severely damaged by heavy waves after the dive. 1934: The Bathysphere reached a depth of 923 m (3,028 ft). , An increasing number of occupied submersibles are now employed around the world. For example, the American-built DSV Alvin, operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, is a three-person submarine that can dive to about 3,600 m (11,811 ft) and is equipped with a mechanical manipulator to collect bottom samples. Such vessels themselves are equipped with state -of-art navigational instruments, such as satellite navigation systems, and global positioning systems that keep the vessel in a live position relative to a sonar beacon on the bottom of the ocean.  Some additional suits feature thruster packs that can boost a diver to different locations underwater.
Deep-sea exploration is the investigation of physical, chemical, and biological conditions on the sea bed, for scientific or commercial purposes.  In 1930 Beebe and Barton reached a depth of 435 m (1,427 ft), and 923 m (3,028 ft) in 1934. The original benthograph built by USC was very successful in taking a series of underwater photos until it became wedged between some rocks and could not be retrieved.  The United States Navy acquired Trieste in 1958 and equipped it with a new cabin to enable it to reach deep ocean trenches. The British researchers used wire-line soundings to investigate sea depths and collected hundreds of biological samples from all oceans except the Arctic. 1948: Otis Barton set out for a new record, reaching a depth of 1,370 m (4,495 ft). , A more advanced version of the sounding weight is the gravity corer.  Alvin made its first test dive in 1964, and has performed more than 3,000 dives to average depths of 1,829 m (6,001 ft). Gale Cengage, 2003. eNotes.com. These hot springs play an important role in the formation of deposits that are enriched in copper, nickel, cadmium, chromium, and uranium. . These instruments are either lowered to the sea bottom by long cables or directly attached to submersible buoys. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. This instrument is used primarily for determining the depth of water by means of an acoustic echo. , To explore even deeper depths, deep-sea explorers must rely on specially constructed steel chambers to protect them. Ed. British explorer Sir James Clark Ross fully employed this instrument to reach a depth of 3,700 m (12,139 ft) in 1840. By registering the time lapses between outgoing and returning signals continuously on paper tape, a continuous mapping of the seabed is obtained. In 1960, Jacques Piccard and United States Navy Lieutenant Donald Walsh descended in the bathyscaphe Trieste into the deepest part of the world's oceans, the Mariana Trench. The Challenger expedition covered 127,653 kilometres (68,927 nmi), and shipboard scientists collected hundreds of samples and hydrographic measurements, discovering more than 4,700 new species of marine life, including deep-sea organisms. The extreme conditions in the deep sea require elaborate methods and technologies to endure, which has been the main reason why its exploration has had a comparatively short history. Scientists are working to find ways to study this extreme environment from the shipboard.  The Challenger expedition used similar instruments called Baillie sounding machines to extract samples from the sea bed. Some important milestones of deep sea exploration are listed below: The sounding weight, one of the first instruments used for the sea bottom investigation, was designed as a tube on the base which forced the seabed in when it hit the bottom of the ocean.
 With this instrument, he reached a depth of 3,700 m (12,139 ft) in 1840. The drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution is equipped to extract cores from depths of as much as 1,500 m (4,921 ft) below the ocean bottom.  They are also credited with providing the first real view of major seafloor features such as the deep ocean basins.
A Hybrid ROV (HROV) combines features of both ROVs and AUV, operating independently or with a cable. The corer consists of an open-ended tube with a lead weight and a trigger mechanism that releases the corer from its suspension cable when the corer is lowered over the seabed and a small weight touches the ground.  In 1953, his son Jacques Piccard joined in building a new and improved bathyscaphe Trieste, which dived to 3,139 m (10,299 ft) in field trials. 2006. , Remote operated vehicles (ROVs) are also seeing increasing use in underwater exploration.
The deepest recorded descent made by a skin diver is 127 m (417 ft). By lifting the corer, a long, cylindrical sample is extracted in which the structure of the seabed’s layers of sediment is preserved. Recovering sediment cores allows scientists to see the presence or absence of specific fossils in the mud that may indicate climate patterns at times in the past, such as during the ice ages. , One of the first unmanned deep sea vehicles was developed by the University of California with a grant from the Allan Hancock Foundation in the early 1950s to develop a more economical method of taking photos miles under the sea with an unmanned steel high-pressure 3,000 lb (1,361 kg) sphere called a benthograph, which contained a camera and strobe light. The first instrument used for deep-sea investigation was the sounding weight, used by British explorer Sir James Clark Ross. In general, modern scientific deep-sea exploration can be said to have begun when French scientist Pierre Simon de Laplace investigated the average depth of the Atlantic ocean by observing tidal motions registered on Brazilian and African coasts.
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