There were also famous temples in Norway, but no detailed descriptions are given of them. The Venerable Bede, writing his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (“Ecclesiastical History of the English People”) early in the 8th century, showed much interest in the conversion of the English and some in their earlier religion.
The Edda, Volume 1 The Divine Mythology of the North, Popular Studies in Mythology, Romance, and Folklore, No. Giants and other monsters will attack the world of gods and humans from various directions. , Scandinavian placenames occur with the name of a deity compounded with lundr, 'grove', or viðr, 'wood'.. No unified conception of the afterlife is known.
A depiction of the Donar Oak. Many factors played a part in the development of tree-worship but it is probable the origin of the sacredness of trees must be assigned to the fact that it was acquired from the incense and the aromatic woods which were credited with the power of animating the dead. The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! Even considering that Christmas Trees aren't pagan is too much. Updates? Catholics Rejected Trees as too ... Protestant? It was richly described by Adam of Bremen, whose report is based on statements of eyewitnesses, though he may have been influenced by the biblical description of Solomon’s temple.
If the blindfolded falls, they must crawl out of the grove.  Such groves were sometimes dedicated to a particular deity: in addition to the case of Nerthus, there was a silva Herculi sacra ('wood sacred to Hercules', an interpretatio romana) near the River Weser, and the Semnones reportedly held their rituals in honor of the regnator omnium deus ('god the ruler of all'). Your IP address and user-agent are shared with Google along with performance and security metrics to ensure quality of service, generate usage statistics, and to detect and address abuse.
The earth will sink into the sea but will rise again, purified and renewed. From Proto-Germanic *xaruʒaz or *haruʒaz, a masculine noun, developed Old Norse hǫrgr meaning 'temple, idol', Old English hearg 'temple, idol', and Old High German harug meaning 'holy grove, holy stone'. Although the cosmic cataclysm portrayed by the poet of the “Völuspá” reflects the apocalyptic imagery of the Book of Revelation, it is essentially a symbolic reflection of the waning Germanic world, ineluctably moving to its destruction because of the outrages committed by its divine and human representatives.
By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The scholar of Germanic religion Jan de Vries noted that placenames such as Frølund (Denmark), and Ullunda, Frösvi, and Mjärdevi (Sweden), in which the name of a deity is compounded with words meaning "grove" or "wood", suggest a continuation of the same practice, but are found almost exclusively in eastern Scandinavia; however, there is a Coill Tomair recorded near Dublin, an oak forest apparently sacred to Thor. Old English laws mention fenced places around a stone, tree, …
According to the “Hávamál,” any misfortune was better than to be burnt on a funeral pyre, for a corpse was a useless object. Every nine years a great festival was held at Uppsala, and sacrifice was conducted in a sacred grove that stood beside the temple.
I think one of the issues is that the typical Armstrongist simply doesn't care that there is no connection. Trees hold a particular role in Germanic paganism and Germanic mythology, both as individuals (sacred trees) and in groups (sacred groves). Chapter 9. Either you'll get an insult, or you'll get some other dismissal generally in the form of more debunked claims.How wonderful to have a person genuinely read and consider, even if they go away unconvinced. The dead pass, perhaps by slow stages, to a dark, misty world called Niflheim (Niflheimr). The Aesir lived in Asgard, one of the Nine Worlds of Norse Mythology. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The central role of trees in Germanic religion is noted in the earliest written reports about the Germanic peoples, with the Roman historian Tacitus stating that Germanic cult practices took place exclusively in groves rather than temples. The sun will turn black, the stars vanish, and fire will play against the firmament.
Its branches and roots extend far into the, Magnell, Ola; Iregren, Elisabeth.
Christianity had no relevance for the pre …  Such groves were sometimes dedicated to a particular deity: in addition to the case of Nerthus, there was a silva Herculi sacra ('wood sacred to Hercules', an interpretatio romana) near the River Weser, and the Semnones reportedly held their rituals in honor of the regnator omnium deus ('god the ruler of all'). Old English laws mention fenced places around a stone, tree, or other object of worship. Down the centuries from the Druid tree-worship comes the spell of the walnut-tree. , Sacred trees and groves leave few archaeological traces, but two such sites may have been identified, both in Sweden. Easter Eggs and Bonfires Easter eggs are attributed to her worship, according to Jacob Grimm. The tree is flanked on both sides by large hearths. Some two centuries later, c. 1072, Adam of Bremen compiled his Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum (History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen), which included a description of the lands in the north, then part of the ecclesiastical province of Hamburg.
The older is Ragnarök, meaning “Fate of the Gods”; the later form, used by Snorri and some others, is Ragnarøkkr, “Twilight of the Gods.” Allusions to the impending disaster are made by several skalds of the 10th and 11th centuries, but fuller descriptions are given chiefly in the “Völuspá” and the didactic poems of the Poetic Edda, which form the basis of Snorri’s description in his Edda. The most detailed description of a sacrifice is that given by Adam of Bremen. Trees hold a particular role in Germanic paganism and Germanic mythology, both as individuals (sacred trees) and in groups (sacred groves). Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? It was an essential element of early Germanic culture. This does not imply, however, that Icelandic temples of the 10th century were modeled on churches; rather they resembled large Icelandic farmhouses. Sacred trees and groves are widely attested among the records of the ancient Germanic peoples. There they venerated what Tacitus refers to as ", Donar's Oak was a sacred tree located in an unclear location around what is now the region of, Sacred pillar-like objects, perhaps tree stumps, held sacred by the pagan Saxons. It is always associated to pagan practice. History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen. Tacitus, on the contrary, provided a lucid picture of customs and religious practices of continental Germanic tribes in his Germania, written c. ad 98. Tree-spirits. Roman authors repeatedly mention the sacrifice of prisoners of war to the gods of victory.
, The Proto-Germanic masculine noun *nemeðaz, which developed into Old Frankish nimid ('holy grove'), similarly either developed from, or is otherwise connected to, Gaulish nemeton, Latin sacellum and Old Irish nemed 'holiness'. Terminology The pagan Germanic peoples referred to holy places by a variety of terms and many of these terms variously referred to stones, groves, and temple structures. Unfortunately for us, we the authors at ABD no longer have the time to properly keep up this blog. A building believed to be a temple has been excavated in northern Iceland, and its outline agrees closely with that described in the saga. The present section divides particularly notable examples into texts discussing the religious activities of the ancient Germanic peoples involving trees and groves (Germanic paganism) and their appearance in the myths of the Germanic peoples, particularly the North Germanic peoples (Germanic mythology). Several more details are given in other sources, generally cruder than those of the “Völuspá.”. A detailed description of a hof is given in one of the sagas. The pagan Germanic peoples referred to holy places by a variety of terms and many of these terms variously referred to stones, groves, and temple structures. Proofs of the prevalence of tree-worship in ancient Greece and Italy are abundant. , Reverence for individual trees among the Germanic peoples is a common theme in medieval Christian denunciations of backsliding into paganism. 750-1050)-language text, Articles with text from the Celtic languages collective, Articles containing Old Frankish-language text, Articles containing Transalpine Gaulish-language text, Articles containing Old Irish (to 900)-language text, Articles containing Middle Low German-language text, Articles with German-language sources (de), Articles with Swedish-language sources (sv), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, According to Roman senator Tacitus in his first century CE work, On an "island in the ocean", often identified as, In his first century CE ethnography of the, According to Tacitus, the Semnones, a populous and powerful Germanic people, allowed none to enter the grove without being fettered and blindfolded. Germanic religion and mythology, complex of stories, lore, and beliefs about the gods and the nature of the cosmos developed by the Germanic-speaking peoples before their conversion to Christianity. Völsung's hall is built around the tree, it bears "fair blossoms", and stretches through the roof of the structure. The narrative is more important than the facts or quite a few.It's the same mindset that demands Abraham kept a weekly seventh day Sabbath, with absolutely no tangible evidence whatsoever and in direct contradiction to what evidence does exist. Prominent trees mentioned in Germanic mythology include the following: Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, Anthropomorphic wooden cult figurines of Central and Northern Europe, Among trees, bones, and stones: The sacred grove at Lunda, Veitstu Hvé Blóta Skal : The Old Norse Blót in the Light of Osteological Remains from Frösö Church, Jämtland, Sweden, Sacred trees and groves in Germanic paganism and mythology, Mythological Norse people, items and places, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sacred_trees_and_groves_in_Germanic_paganism_and_mythology&oldid=956777209, Articles containing Proto-Germanic-language text, Articles containing Old Norse-language text, Articles containing Old English (ca. 12. Future refuge of, Generally considered another name for Yggdrasil. Germanic religion played an important role in shaping the civilization of Europe. The word hof, commonly applied to temples in the literature of Iceland, seems to belong to the later rather than to the earlier period. After Christianization, trees continue to play a significant role in the folk beliefs of the Germanic peoples. There also were sacrifices of a more private kind.
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