lake tanganyika

This vast inland sea was first made known to the European world in the mid 1800’s by the English explorers Richard Burton and John Speke.

Its outlet is the Lukuga River, which flows into the Lualaba River. [28][29] Some of the endemics do occur slightly into the upper Lukuga River, Lake Tanganyika's outflow, but further spread into the Congo River basin is prevented by physics (Lukuga has fast-flowing sections with many rapids and waterfalls) and chemistry (Tanganyika's water is alkaline, while the Congo's generally is acidic). [27] Their breeding behavior fall into two main groups, the substrate spawners (often in caves or rock crevices) and the mouthbrooders. [14] The water has gradually warmed since the 1800s and this has accelerated with global warming since the 1950s. Though fed by a number of rivers, the lake is not the centre of an extensive drainage area. [8], The lake has a complex history of changing flow patterns, due to its high altitude, great depth, slow rate of refill, and mountainous location in a turbulently volcanic area that has undergone climate changes.

[8] The cichlids of the African Great Lakes, including Tanganyika, represent the most diverse extent of adaptive radiation in vertebrates. The two boats waited until December 1915, and mounted a surprise attack on the Germans, with the capture of the gunboat Kingani. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.

Lake Tanganyika, second largest of the lakes of eastern Africa.
Once the catfish eggs hatch the young eat the cichlid eggs.

Why not head to Z. The fertile circulating surface water, although not tidal, provides abundant plankton for its inhabitants which in turn provides much needed protein for both the local and export markets. Physics of Lakes, volume 1: Foundation of the Mathematical and Physical Background. The initiative is attempting to monitor the resources and state of the lake, set common criteria for acceptable level of sediments, pollution, and water quality in general, and design and establish a lake basin management authority. [67], Among the non-endemic fish, some are widespread African species but several are only shared with the Malagarasi and Congo River basins, such as the Congo bichir (Polypterus congicus), goliath tigerfish (Hydrocynus goliath), Citharinus citharus, six-banded distichodus (Distichodus sexfasciatus) and mbu puffer (Tetraodon mbu). The aim of the project is to produce an effective and sustainable system for managing and conserving the biodiversity of Lake Tanganyika. [35] The tribe is sometimes split in three, others being Hemibatini and Trematocarini[43][44], Benthochromini (E): Benthochromis horii was scientifically described in 2008, but has often been misidentifed as B. tricoti[45], Boulengerochromini (E): Boulengerochromis microlepis is one of the world's largest cichlids[41] and only member of its tribe[44], Cyphotilapiini (E): Cyphotilapia frontosa, one of only two similar species in the tribe[46], Cyprichromini (E): Cyprichromis microlepidotus and other members of this tribe are open-water planktivores[47][48], Ectodini (E): Ophthalmotilapia nasuta (male) is sexually dimorphic, males being more colorful with longer fins and nose[49], Eretmodini (E): Eretmodus cyanostictus lives near the bottom in the turbulent, coastal surf zone,[50] like other members of its tribe[48], Haplochromini: Astatotilapia burtoni is one of the few Tanganyika species,[51] unlike other African Great Lakes where most belong to this tribe[52], Lamprologini (E): Julidochromis marlieri is popular in the aquarium trade where members of the genus are known as "Julies"[53], Limnochromini (E): Gnathochromis permaxillaris is a zooplanktivore with an unusual protractile mouth[54], Perissodini (E): Perissodus microlepis, a specialized scale-eating species[55], Tilapiini: Oreochromis tanganicae is one of the most common coastal species found in local fish markets[56], Tropheini (E): Tropheus moorii ("red" Chimba morph) is highly variable and the taxonomy of some of the morphs is questionable[57][58][59], Lake Tanganyika is home to more than 80 species of non-cichlid fish and about 60% of these are endemic. The largest rivers discharging into the lake are the Malagarasi, the Ruzizi, and the Kalambo, which has one of the highest waterfalls in the world (704 feet [215 metres]; see Kalambo Falls). Its three basins, which in periods with much lower water levels were separate lakes, are of different ages. At least 90% of the water influx is from rain falling on the lake's surface and at least 90% of the water loss is from direct evaporation. The bottom 1 200 meters of the lake remain ‘dead’ – either too high in hydrogen sulphide or too low in oxygen to support life. Lake Tanganyika is thus an important biological resource for the study of speciation in evolution. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The immense depth is because it lies in the Great Rift Valley, which also has created its steep shoreline. [12], Surface temperatures generally range from about 24 °C (75 °F) in the southern part of the lake in early August to 28–29 °C (82–84 °F) in the late rainy season in March—April. Lowe-McConnell, R.H. (1987).

Florida Mus. The Lake Tanganyika Biodiversity Project has been set up to ensure that its biological diversity is maintained. Of the 10 tribes in this subfamily, half are largely or entirely restricted to the lake (Cyprichromini, Ectodini, Lamprologini, Limnochromini and Tropheini) and another three have species in the lake (Haplochromini, Tilapiini and Tylochromini). Smith, M.P. It is essentially a landlocked sea but in years of heavy rain the lake overflows into the Lukuga River which in turn feeds Congo DR’s Lualaba River.

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