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Theon is best remembered for the part he played in the preservation of Euclid’s Elements, but he also wrote extensively, commenting on Ptolemy’s Almagest and Handy Tables. Hypatia continued his program, which was essentially a determined effort to preserve the Greek mathematical and astronomical heritage in extremely difficult times. Hypatia, (born c. 355 ce—died March 415, Alexandria), mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who lived in a very turbulent era in Alexandria’s history. Concil. Her philosophy also led her to embrace a life of dedicated virginity. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. They pulled her from her carriage on a street in Alexandria, dragged her to a church, stripped her naked, beat her to death and/or flayed her, tore off her limbs, and burned her remains. Updates? Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. These works, the only ones she is listed as having written, have been lost, although there have been attempts to reconstruct aspects of them. It remains a matter of vigorous debate how much the guilt of this atrocity is Cyril’s, but the affair made Hypatia a powerful feminist symbol and a figure of affirmation for intellectual endeavour in the face of ignorant prejudice. Her philosophy was Neoplatonist and was thus seen as “pagan” at a time of bitter religious conflict between Christians (both orthodox and “heretical”), Jews, and pagans. (1986). The name Hypatia means High, Supreme and is of Greek origin. This event was perhaps the final end of the great Library of Alexandria, since the Serapeum may have contained some of the Library’s books. In producing her commentaries on Apollonius and Diophantus, she was pushing the program initiated by her father into more recent and more difficult areas. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Hypatia, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Hypatia of Alexandria, MacTutor History of Mathematics - Biography of Hypatia of Alexandria, Hypatia - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Hypatia - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Black Friday Sale! Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. • Berggren, J. L. (February 2009), "The life and death of Hypatia", Metascience, 18 (1): 93–97, doi:10.1007/s11016-009-9256-z With the deaths of Synesius and Theophilus and the accession of Cyril to the bishopric of Alexandria, however, this climate of tolerance lapsed, and shortly afterward Hypatia became the victim of a particularly brutal murder at the hands of a gang of Christian zealots. She is the earliest female mathematician of whose life and work reasonably detailed knowledge exists. Hypatia of Alexandria, or Patty, was a philosopher, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Egypt in the 4th century AD. An early manifestation of the religious divide of the time was the razing of the Serapeum, the temple of the Greco-Egyptian god Serapis, by Theophilus, Alexandria’s bishop until his death in 412 ce. Her name means ‘supreme.’. Her intellectual accomplishments alone were quite sufficient to merit the preservation and respect of her name, but, sadly, the manner of her death added to it an even greater emphasis. The name Hypatia is a girl's name meaning "highest, supreme". Omissions? She was, in her time, the world’s leading mathematician and astronomer, the only woman for whom such claim can be made. Theophilus, however, was friendly with Synesius, an ardent admirer and pupil of Hypatia, so she was not herself affected by this development but was permitted to pursue her intellectual endeavours unimpeded. Hypatia, an ancient Greek name, has a distinguished namesake: Hypatia of Alexandria was an early philosopher and scholar of mathematics and astronomy--as well as inventor of several scientific instruments. Artist's impression of the murder of Hypatia of Alexandria at the hands of followers of Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria. She is the earliest female mathematician of whose life and work reasonably detailed knowledge exists. Hypatia was brutally murdered by a mob of Christian fanatics. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Premium Membership is now 50% off! Hypatia was the daughter of Theon of Alexandria, himself a mathematician and astronomer and the last attested member of the Alexandrian Museum (see Researcher’s Note: Hypatia’s birth date). She was one of Chidi 's idols as a teenager and he is overjoyed at the chance to meet her in the Good Place, where she has dubbed … As a one-quarter Cherokee, she was the only Native American in the adult business during her tenure; this contributed to her becoming one of the best-known pornographic actresses of the Golden Age of Porn. She is the only philosopher that made it to the Good Place because she was ethically superior to the other great philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato, or Socrates. Author of. Hypatia is famous for being the greatest mathematician and astronomer of her time, for being the leader of the Neoplatonist school of philosophy in Alexandria, for spectacularly overcoming the profound sexism of her society, and for suffering a violent death at the hands of ignorant zealots. Hypatia, (born c. 355 ce —died March 415, Alexandria), mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who lived in a very turbulent era in Alexandria ’s history. Nothing of Hypatia's mother is known, but that is not uncommon for this time period. She is credited with commentaries on Apollonius of Perga’s Conics (geometry) and Diophantus of Alexandria’s Arithmetic (number theory), as well as an astronomical table (possibly a revised version of Book III of her father’s commentary on the Almagest). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. People who like the name Hypatia also like: Hermione, Helena, Ophelia, Isis, Aurora, Pandora, Persephone Her Neoplatonism was concerned with the approach to the One, an underlying reality partially accessible via the human power of abstraction from the Platonic forms, themselves abstractions from the world of everyday reality. According to Scholasticus, an order of Orestes to control Jewish celebrations met with approval by Christians, then to violence between the Christians and the Jews. Hyapatia Lee (born November 11, 1960) is the stage name of a former American exotic dancer, pornographic actress recording artist, and current writer and author. tom. Hypatia c. 370 – 415 C.E. Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. 2011, pages 63-64, Synodicon, c. 216, in iv. She was the daughter of Theon who was a distinguished professor at the University of Alexandria. Hypatia was born in 370 A. D. in Alexandria, Egypt and was later described as a beautifully and well-proportioned woman. "Isidorus 1" entry in John Robert Martindale, (1980). Ogilvie, M. B. She was also a popular teacher and lecturer on philosophical topics of a less-specialist nature, attracting many loyal students and large audiences. Hypatia (pronounced hy-Pay-shuh) was born in the second half of the fourth century, most probably between the years 350-370 AD in the Greco-Roman city of Alexandria, Egypt. Hypatia's name has been claimed by second-wave feminists, as in the publication "Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy," and she has … Hypatia is a name that's been used primarily by parents who are considering baby names for girls. In both, Hypatia's death was a result of a conflict between the Orestes and Cyril, later made a saint of the church. Corrections? The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy, Hypatia of Alexandria – a philosophical martyr, "Learned women in the Alexandrian scholarship and society of late Hellenism", Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, "The Beauty of Reasoning: A Reexamination of Hypatia and Alexandria", Mathematics and Mechanics of Complex Systems, "Isadore of Miletus and Hypatia: On the editing of mathematical texts", "Hypatia of Alexandria: Mathematician, astronomer and philosopher", "St. Cyril of Alexandria and the Murder of Hypatia", "Hypatia, Alexandria's Great Female Scholar", International Society for Neoplatonic Studies, Ancient Greek and Hellenistic mathematics, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hypatia&oldid=990729728, Persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages with numeric Bible version references, Articles with Greek-language sources (el), Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 05:07. 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