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planet 9

If a planet was in a distant orbit around this star, three-body interactions during the encounter could alter the planet's path, leaving it in a stable orbit around the Sun. Renu Malhotra, Kathryn Volk, and Xianyu Wang have proposed that the four detached objects with the longest orbital periods, those with perihelia beyond 40 AU and semi-major axes greater than 250 AU, are in n:1 or n:2 mean-motion resonances with a hypothetical planet. [87][161], An analysis of the orbits of comets with nearly parabolic orbits identifies five new comets with hyperbolic orbits that approach the nominal orbit of Planet Nine described in Batygin and Brown's initial article. [43], Planet Nine could have been captured from outside the Solar System during a close encounter between the Sun and another star. A 3-D version of the image of the orbit and those of several eTNOs shown in figure 14 of "Constraints on Planet Nine's Orbit and Sky Position within a Framework of Mean-motion Resonances" is available. Using a supercomputer they will offset the images to account for the calculated motion of Planet Nine, allowing many faint images of a faint moving object to be combined to produce a brighter image. Voici la vitesse théorique maximum du son. [175], Persephone, the wife of the deity Pluto, had been a popular name commonly used in science fiction for a planet beyond Neptune (see Fictional planets of the Solar System).

Several authors proposed that Sedna entered this orbit after encountering an unknown planet on a distant orbit, a member of the open cluster that formed with the Sun, or another star that later passed near the Solar System. Their simulations also showed that the perihelia of the eTNOs rose and fell smoothly, leaving many with perihelion distances between 50 AU and 70 AU where none had been observed, and predicted that there would be many other unobserved objects. La planète Neuf (nom provisoire en l'attente de toute confirmation éventuelle, Planet Nine en anglais), ou neuvième planète, est une planète hypothétique du Système solaire. Toutefois -- mais cela dépend notamment, à cette distance, de la taille de l'objet --, il a très bien pu être enregistré par le satellite Wise (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer) lors de ses sondages de la voûte céleste entre 2010 et 2011. Planete9, La Teste-de-Buch. New Evidence of an Unseen Planet at Solar System's Edge", "Strong Evidence Suggests a Super Earth Lies beyond Pluto", "How Planet Nine May Have Been Exiled to Solar System's Edge", "New Evidence Suggests a Ninth Planet Lurking at the Edge of the Solar System", "Would Planet Nine Pass the Planet Test? [8][11] Unless Planet Nine is observed, its existence is purely conjectural. At aphelion, the largest telescopes would be required, but if the planet is currently located in between, many observatories could spot Planet Nine. proposed an encounter with a passing star might have helped acquire these objects – dubbed sednitos (, It is estimated that to find Planet Nine, telescopes that can resolve a 30. Mais les théories d'objets transneptuniens plus petits et plus nombreux orbitant à la place de la Planète 9 ne sont pas conformes avec la simulation du Caltech et semblent improbables étant donné la masse trop faible de la ceinture de Kuiper[26],[27]. They determined that there was only a 0.007% likelihood that this combination of alignments was due to chance. [1][131] According to University of Michigan professor Fred Adams, within the next 10 to 15 years, Planet Nine will either be observable or enough data will have been gathered to rule out its existence. After accounting for the observational biases of the survey, no evidence for the arguments of perihelion (ω) clustering identified by Trujillo and Sheppard was seen,[I] and the orientation of the orbits of the objects with the largest semi-major axis was statistically consistent with being random.

[136][159], William Folkner, a planetary scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), has stated that the Cassini spacecraft is not experiencing unexplained deviations in its orbit around Saturn. However, many minor planets, including dwarf planets such as Pluto, asteroids, and comets have been discovered and named. Une fois découverte, c'est un comité ad hoc de l'Union astronomique internationale qui valide le nom, sur proposition justifiée du découvreur[38]. The resulting exchanges of angular momentum cause the perihelia to rise, placing them in Sedna-like orbits, and later fall, returning them to their original orbits after several hundred million years. La gravité globale de cet anneau dévierait ensuite ces nouveaux objets isolés, et il en résulterait des objets transneptuniens aux orbites très particulières[28],[29]. The timing of these occultations would provide precise astrometry of these objects enabling their orbits to be monitored for variations due to the tide from Planet Nine. If these orbits are hyperbolic due to close encounters with Planet Nine the analysis estimates that Planet Nine is currently near aphelion with a right ascension of 83–90° and a declination of 8–10°. [2][1] Its gravitational effects could explain the unusual clustering of orbits for a group of extreme trans-Neptunian objects (eTNOs), bodies beyond Neptune that orbit the Sun at distances averaging more than 250 times that of the Earth. They identify this planet as Planet Nine but propose a different orbit with an eccentricity e ≈ 0.5, inclination i ≈ 30°, argument of perihelion ω ≈ 150°, and longitude of ascending node Ω ≈ 50° (the last differs from Brown and Batygin's value of 90°).

Des chercheurs emmenés par Alessandro Morbidelli, de l'observatoire de Nice-Côte d'Azur, ont par ailleurs montré que l'existence de cet astre pourrait aussi expliquer la curieuse inclinaison de 6° du plan de l’orbite des planètes (l'écliptique) autour du Soleil par rapport à son équateur. Modèle de Scholtz et Unwin : un trou noir primordial ? They identify five objects that would be near resonances with Planet Nine if it had a semi-major axis of 654 AU: Sedna (3:2), 2004 VN112 (3:1), 2012 VP113 (4:1), 2000 CR105 (5:1), and 2001 FP185 (5:1). Depending on the size, and the distance and magnitude, citizen scientists might be able to find Planet Nine. [80] A search combining multiple images collected by WISE and NEOWISE data has also been conducted without detecting Planet Nine. [100], Simulations of 15 known objects evolving under the influence of Planet Nine also revealed differences from observations. A planet originating in a system without Jupiter-massed planets could remain in a distant eccentric orbit for a longer time, increasing its chances of capture. [111] Batygin thinks that there is insufficient mass in the Kuiper belt to explain the formation of the disk and asks "why would the protoplanetary disk end near 30 AU and restart beyond 100 AU?

Il est admis par cette étude que les orbites des corps de la ceinture de Kuiper sont rassemblés dans une région et n'ont que 0,007 % de chance d'y être par hasard[25]. En tout cas, la Nasa compte sur nous. « Il y a un peu plus de quatre années-lumière entre Neptune et Proxima du Centaure, l'étoile la plus proche de nous, rappelle le directeur du projet, l'astrophysicien Marc Kuchner, du Goddard Space Flight Center de la Nasa, et une grande partie de ce vaste territoire est inexplorée.

Based on the new objects, the updated orbital parameters of hypothesized Planet Nine were:[81], Batygin was cautious in interpreting the results of the simulation developed for his and Brown's research article, saying, "Until Planet Nine is caught on camera it does not count as being real. Consequently, there is a well-established process for naming newly discovered solar system objects. 109.7K. [145][146][147][O] Jim Green of NASA's Science Mission Directorate is optimistic that it could be observed by the James Webb Space Telescope, the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, that is expected to be launched in 2021. If Planet Nine is observed, the International Astronomical Union Avec une telle masse et un tel diamètre il est peu probable que la Planète neuf soit une super-terre rocheuse[15], elle est probablement gazeuse. Our prediction is not related to this prediction."[177]. In simulations of the migration of the giant planets described by the Nice model fewer objects are captured in the Oort cloud when Planet Nine is included. [44] A previous article reported that if the massive disk extended beyond 80 AU some objects scattered outward by Jupiter and Saturn would have been left in high inclination (inc > 50°), low eccentricity orbits which have not been observed.

[168] It is likely to be a name chosen from Roman or Greek mythology.

Instead, the simulation produced a rapid precession of the objects' orbits and most of the objects were ejected on too short of a timescale for an inclination instability to occur. Later, in 2015, Raúl and Carlos de la Fuente Marco argued that two massive planets in orbital resonance were necessary to produce the similarities of so many orbits. Il prédisent l'existence d'un gigantesque anneau de corps de toutes tailles, au-delà de la ceinture de Kuiper. If Planet Nine is observed, the International Astronomical Union will certify a name, with priority usually given to a name proposed by its discoverers.

This would lower the eccentricity of Planet Nine and stabilize its orbit. [3] The simulations also revealed that objects with semi-major axis greater than 250 AU could have stable, aligned orbits if they had lower eccentricities. They propose that instead of being free floating planets, these objects are primordial black holes. 183.7K. "[5] In a 2019 interview with Derek Muller for the YouTube channel Veritasium, Batygin also informally suggested, based on a petition on Change.org, to name the planet after singer David Bowie, and to name any potential moons of the planet after characters from Bowie's song catalogue, such as Ziggy Stardust or Starman.

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