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While a dim remnant did eventually return round the Sun, it was generally accepted to be a cloud of dust, rather than a solid object. [51] And if such an object existed in the Solar System, it would have passed through the inner Solar System a million times by now. [120] That same month, the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society published a paper by Daniel Whitmire (who had proposed the existence of Tyche) in which he reconsidered a modified version of the Nemesis model he had first proposed in 1985[121] in light of recent speculations concerning the possibility of a trans-Neptunian planet. The second was launched when Gabriel Dallet suggested that a single trans-Neptunian planet lying at 47 AU could account for the motion of Uranus. [18], Lowell's first search focused on the ecliptic, the plane encompassed by the zodiac where the other planets in the Solar System lie. [73] Today astronomers accept that Planet X, as originally defined, does not exist. He attributed this supposed pattern to a heretofore undetected companion to the Sun, either a dim red dwarf or a brown dwarf, lying in an elliptical, 26-million-year orbit. Four test orbits of a trans-Plutonian planet have been integrated forward for four million years in order to determine the effects of such a body on the stability of the Neptune–Pluto 3:2 resonance. (Again! [108] Its orbit was expected to take it within 0.429 AU (64,200,000 km; 39,900,000 mi) of Earth on 26 December 2013. "[31] In 1931, using a mathematical formula, Ernest W. Brown asserted (in agreement with E. C. Bower) that the presumed irregularities in the orbit of Uranus could not be due to the gravitational effect of a more distant planet, and thus that Lowell's supposed prediction was "purely accidental". However, the astronauts still wore spacesuits with helmets on the planet's surface, while the Xiliens and monsters may not necessarily require oxygen to breathe, so it is not certain whether or not P… The planet has appeared in TimeSplitters and TimeSplitters 2, giving each game a Story level and an Arcade map. "[11], In 1850 James Ferguson, Assistant Astronomer at the United States Naval Observatory, noted that he had "lost" a star he had observed, GR1719k, which Lt. Matthew Maury, the superintendent of the Observatory, claimed was evidence that it must be a new planet. [111] After ISON passed perihelion on 28 November, it rapidly began to fade, leaving many to suspect that it had been destroyed as it passed the Sun. [43], In the 1980s and 1990s, Robert Harrington led a search to determine the real cause of the apparent irregularities. "[131], NASA frequently has to evaluate whether or not to respond to such claims, and the value of reassuring the public is outweighed by the risk of granting further exposure to a completely non-scientific idea. [53] In fact NASA's budget amounts to roughly 0.5% of that of the US government. [8][34][35] In reality, NASA's position is, and always has been, that Nibiru does not exist. [113][114] The Hubble Space Telescope failed to detect fragments of ISON on 18 December 2013. [23] The decision to name the object Pluto was intended in part to honour Percival Lowell, as his initials made up the word's first two letters. [57] Polls have suggested that many perceive NASA as a vast government agency that receives as much funding as the Department of Defense. To travel 1000 AU in two years, an object would need to be moving at 2400 km/s – faster than the galactic escape velocity. Failing to find the planet, according to one friend, "virtually killed him". [7], In 2014 astronomers at the Universidad Complutense in Madrid suggested that the available data actually indicate more than one trans-Neptunian planet;[70] subsequent work further suggests that the evidence is robust enough. [64], In 2008 Tadashi Mukai and Patryk Sofia Lykawka suggested a distant Mars- or Earth-sized planet, currently in a highly eccentric orbit between 100 and 200 AU and orbital period of 1000 years with an inclination of 20° to 40°, was responsible for the structure of the Kuiper belt. [29][30] The specific focus of his prediction revolved around the Woman of the Apocalypse referring to a supposedly unique configuration on that date of the Sun, Moon, and planets in Virgo. It was found that the hypothetical object's mass had to exceed 5 Earth masses to break the resonance, and the parameter space is quite large and a large variety of objects could have existed beyond Pluto without disturbing the resonance. [81][82] However, despite having been described as a "tenth planet" in an early NASA press release,[83] Eris (then known only as 2003 UB313) is now classified as a dwarf planet. [31][32][33], Meade's claims received extensive media attention. This meant that Pluto, far from being dark, was in fact exceptionally bright, and thus was probably no more than ​1⁄100 Earth mass. [80] Though the idea of Nemesis appears similar to the Nibiru cataclysm, they are, in fact, very different, as Nemesis, if it existed, would have an orbital period thousands of times longer, and would never come near Earth itself. [44] This hypothesis was met with a mixed reception. [14], In 1911, Indian astronomer Venkatesh P. Ketakar suggested the existence of two trans-Neptunian planets, which he named Brahma and Vishnu, by reworking the patterns observed by Pierre-Simon Laplace in the planetary satellites of Jupiter and applying them to the outer planets. [47], Although its mission did not involve a search for Planet X, the IRAS space observatory made headlines briefly in 1983 due to an "unknown object" that was at first described as "possibly as large as the giant planet Jupiter and possibly so close to Earth that it would be part of this Solar System". [62], Another conspiracy claim regards a patch of missing data in Google Sky near the constellation of Orion, which has often been cited as evidence that Nibiru has been redacted. [11], In 1879, Camille Flammarion noted that the comets 1862 III and 1889 III had aphelia of 47 and 49 AU, respectively, suggesting that they might mark the orbital radius of an unknown planet that had dragged them into an elliptical orbit. [122] The hypothesis argues that an object far closer to the Sun than Nemesis could have a similar effect if its orbit precessed at a rate thousands of times slower than its actual speed, which would mean it might only interact with the Kuiper belt every 27 million years, potentially sending comets into the inner Solar System and triggering mass extinctions.

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